Rebuilding World Economy, Bretton Woods System, G-77 and NIEO: UPSC notes on History Class10

bretton woods system class 10
bretton woods system class 10

​​ Most of the killed and maimed people were of the working age and this affected the work force in England. ​​ Religious dissenters from Europe fled due to the fear of persecution in Europe and migrated to America. ​ ​This increased their efficiency in the single task and the speed of production too. ​​ Less willing workers were at time forcibly abducted by the agents. ​​ Chutney music popular in Trinidad and Guyana is another creative expression of the post indenture experience. Due to Rinderpest, they were forced to work for wages and so it affected the economy.

  • America and Australia and some eastern European countries started exporting food grains to Britain which gave further set back to the local producers.
  • The dollar was fixed to the price of gold ($35 an ounce) – giving the US Dollar a fixed value.
  • The delegates, within the agreement, used the gold standard to create a fixed currency exchange rate.
  • Although there was unprecedented growth in the West and Japan, nothing was done about the poverty and lack of development in the countries which were earlier colonies.

This meant that though Britain was running a trade deficit, it had a financial account surplus, and payments balanced. Increasingly, Britain’s positive balance of payments required keeping the wealth of Empire nations in British banks. One incentive for, say, South African holders of rand to park their wealth in London and to keep the money in Sterling, was a strongly valued pound sterling.

As it was established to power up the economy and to the realm of trades and economic relations. The Bretton Woods Conference established the International Monetary Fund to deal with external surpluses and shortages of its member nations. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development was set up to finance post-war reconstruction and they started the financial operations in 1947.

Critical voices on the world bank and IMF

The original Bretton Woods agreement also included plans for an International Trade Organisation but these lay dormant until the World Trade Organisation was created in the early 1990s. A floating exchange rate is a regime where a nation’s currency is set by the forex market through supply and demand. The currency rises or falls freely, and is not significantly manipulated by the nation’s government. Post Bretton Woods breakdown, countries did not need to peg currencies against USD or gold prices. The coins were free to float and fluctuated with the market demand.

No country can afford to have a persistent BOP deficit. The Bretton Woods System almost prohibited the use of direct controls. World economy through collective bargaining and lobbying.

bretton woods system class 10

The example of indentured labour migration from the colonies also shows the two-sided nature of the 19th century world. A world of economic growth as well as misery, higher incomes for some and poverty for others, technological advances along with new forms of coercion. Falling of agricultural prices had made it even worse.

In this system, national currencies were pledged to the dollar at a fixed exchange rate. The dollar itself was anchored to gold at a fixed price of $35 per ounce of gold. Throughout the 1950s Washington sustained a balance of payments deficit to finance loans, aid, and troops for allied regimes. But during the 1960s the costs of doing so became less tolerable. By 1970 the U.S. held under 16% of international reserves. Adjustment to these changed realities was impeded by the U.S. commitment to fixed exchange rates and by the U.S. obligation to convert dollars into gold on demand.

This flexibility meant a member state would not have to induce a depression to cut its national income down to such a low level that its imports would finally fall within its means. Thus, countries were to be spared the need to resort to the classical medicine of deflating themselves into drastic unemployment when faced with chronic balance of payments deficits. Before the Second World War, European nations—particularly Britain—often resorted to this. A major point of common ground at the Conference was the goal to avoid a recurrence of the closed markets and economic warfare that had characterized the 1930s.

If anything, Bretton Woods was a return to a time devoid of increased governmental intervention in economies and currency systems. International Monetary Fund and World Bank were bretton woods system class 10 set up to finance post war restructuring. The planners at Bretton Woods set up a system of rules, institutions, and procedures to regulate the international monetary system.

Question 3 – Past Year Questions – 5 Marks – Chapter 3 Class 10 History – The Making of a Global World – History

Postwar world capitalism suffered from a dollar shortage. The United States was running large balance of trade surpluses, and U.S. reserves were immense and growing. Even though all nations wanted to buy U.S. exports, dollars had to leave the United States and become available for international use so they could do so. In other words, the United States would have to reverse the imbalances in global wealth by running a balance of trade deficit, financed by an outflow of U.S. reserves to other nations (a U.S. financial account deficit). The U.S. could run a financial deficit by either importing from, building plants in, or donating to foreign nations. Speculative investment was discouraged by the Bretton Woods agreement, and importing from other nations was not appealing in the 1950s, because U.S. technology was cutting edge at the time.

Decisionmaking authority was given to the Western industrial powers. The US was given the right of veto over key IMF and World Bank decisions. The Bretton Woods system was based on fixed exchange rates.

bretton woods system class 10

In the 1960s, UK citizens were limited to taking £50 of foreign currency on a foreign holiday. The Bretton Woods Agreement remains a significant event in world financial history. The two Bretton Woods Institutions it created in the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank played an important part in helping to rebuild Europe in the aftermath of World War II. Faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped food to reach more cheaply and quickly from faraway farms to markets.

As the dominant partner, the US used the Bretton arrangements to establish its hold and control of global trade. All the 44 signatory nations of the agreement contributed fees towards the initial funding of the two institutions. B) IBRD or, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development provides underdeveloped nations capital for developmental projects.

History-The Making of a Global World class 10 Notes

The Second World War caused an immense amount of economic devastation and social disruption. The shift toward a more pluralistic distribution of economic power led to increasing dissatisfaction with the privileged role of the U.S. dollar as the international currency. Acting effectively as the world’s central banker, the U.S., through its deficit, determined the level of international liquidity. In an increasingly interdependent world, U.S. policy significantly influenced economic conditions in Europe and Japan.

Sample Paper all are made available throughthe best app for CBSE studentsand myCBSEguide website. CBSE quick revision note for Class-10 Social Science, Chemistry, Maths, Biology and other subject are very helpful to revise the whole syllabus during exam days. The revision notes covers all important formulas and concepts given in the chapter. Even if you wish to have an overview of a chapter, quick revision notes are here to do if for you. These notes will certainly save your time during stressful exam days. Most developing countries did not benefit from the fast growth of Western economies in 1950’s & 60’s.

The Three types of flows within inter-national economic exchanges during the 19th century :

Britannica is the ultimate student resource for key school subjects like history, government, literature, and more. Till the 1870s, animals were shipped live and then slaughtered. Meat was hence an expensive luxury beyond the reach of the European poor, refrigerated ships, enabled the transport of perishable foods over long distances. Indians carried goods, money, skills and ideas abroad, an active coastal trade, as early as 3000 BC, linked Indus Valley Civilisation with present-day West Asia.

Rebuilding World Economy: Bretton Woods System, G-77 and NIEO

Indentured labour was a practice introduced by the British in the nineteenth century. Indentured labour refers to bonded labour under contract. The labourer works for an employer for a specified period of time. In the 19th century hundreds of thousands of Indian and Chinese labourers went to work on plantations, in mines and in road and railway construction projects around the world. Explain the condition of the indentured labourers who went to work in different parts of the world. There was widespread increase in unemployment coupled with decrease in agricultural and industrial production.

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